Topics to be studied under each chapter for the academic year
||Name of the unit
||Chemical substances - Nature and behaviour
||Chemical reactions and equations;
Acids, bases, and salts;
Metals and non-metals;
Carbon and its compounds;
Periodic classification of elements.
||World of living
Control and coordination;
How do organisms reproduce?;
Heredity and evolution.
||Light - Reflection and refraction;
The human eye and the colourful world.
||Effects of current
Magnetic effects of electric current.
||Sources of energy;
Sustainable management of natural resources.
Chemical reaction and equations
Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications
types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement,
precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.
Acids, bases, and salts
Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and
properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not
required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide,
Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.
Metals and non-metals
Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series;
properties of ionic compounds; Basic metallurgical processes; Corrosion and its prevention.
Carbon and its compounds
Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of
Homologous series. Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens,
alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons
unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation,
addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses),
Periodic classification of elements
Need for classification, early attempts at classification of
(Dobereiner’s Triads, Newland’s Law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s Periodic Table), Modern periodic
table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic
Being’. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration,
excretion in plants and animals.
Control and coordination in animals and plants
Tropic movements in plants; Introduction of plant hormones;
coordination in animals: Nervous system; Voluntary, involuntary and reflex action; Chemical
coordination: animal hormones.
How do organisms reproduce?
Reproduction in animals and plants (asexual and sexual)
health-need and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women’s
Heredity and Evolution
Heredity; Mendel’s contribution- Laws for inheritance of
determination: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.
Light - Reflection and refraction
Reflection of light by curved surfaces; Images formed by
mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula
required), magnification. Refraction; Laws of refraction, refractive index. Refraction of
by spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula (Derivation not required);
Magnification. Power of a lens.
The human eye and the colourful world
Functioning of a lens in the human eye, defects of vision and
corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses. Refraction of light through a
dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.
Electric current, potential difference and electric current.
Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series
combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily
Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power,
Interrelation between P, V, I, and R.
Magnetic effects of current
Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying
field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor,
Left Hand Rule, Electric Motor, Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference,
current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule. Electric Generator, Direct current. Alternating current:
frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.
Sources of energy
Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional
energy: Fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; Nuclear energy.
Renewable versus non-renewable sources of Energy.
Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste
their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.
Sustainable management of natural resources
Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest
Coal and Petroleum conservation. Examples of people’s participation for conservation of
resources. Big dams: advantages and limitations; alternatives, if any. Water harvesting.
Sustainability of natural resources.