Topics to be studied under each chapter for the academic year
||Name of the unit
||Chemical substances - Nature and behaviour
||Chemical reactions and equations;
Acids, bases, and salts;
Metals and non-metals;
Carbon and its compounds;
Periodic classification of elements.
||World of living
How do organisms reproduce?;
Heredity and evolution.
||Light - Reflection and refraction;
The human eye and the colourful world.
||Effects of current
Magnetic effects of electric current.
Sustainable management of natural resources.
Chemical reaction and equations
Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications
balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition,
displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.
Acids, bases, and salts
Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and
General properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm
required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide,
Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.
Metals and non-metals
Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series;
and properties of ionic compounds.
Carbon and its compounds
Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of
Periodic classification of elements
Need for classification, early attempts at classification of
elements (Dobereiner’s Triads, Newland’s Law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s Periodic Table), Modern
periodic table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic
‘Living Being’. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration,
transport and excretion in plants and animals.
How do organisms reproduce?
Reproduction in animals and plants (asexual and sexual)
reproductive health-need and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing
Heredity and Evolution
Heredity; Mendel’s contribution- Laws for inheritance of
Sex determination: brief introduction.
Light - Reflection and refraction
Reflection of light by curved surfaces; Images formed by
spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length,
formula (Derivation not
required), magnification. Refraction; Laws of refraction, refractive index. Refraction of
by spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula (Derivation not required);
Magnification. Power of a lens.
The human eye and the colourful world
Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light,
scattering of light, applications in daily life.
Electric current, potential difference and electric current.
Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends.
Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in
life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power,
Interrelation between P, V, I, and R.
Magnetic effects of current
Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying
conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying
Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Electric Motor, Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential
difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule.
Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste
production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.
Sustainable management of natural resources
Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest
wildlife; Coal and Petroleum conservation. Examples of people’s participation for
of natural resources. Big dams: advantages and limitations; alternatives, if any. Water
harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.
List of experiments
- Studying the properties of acids and bases (HCl & NaOH) on the basis of
their reaction with:
a) Litmus solution (Blue/Red)
b) Zinc metal
c) Solid sodium carbonate
- Performing and observing the following reactions and classifying them
a) Combination reaction
b) Decomposition reaction
c) Displacement reaction
d) Double displacement reaction
(i) Action of water on quicklime
(ii) Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals
(iii) Iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution
(iv) Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride solutions
- Observing the action of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Al metals on the following salt
iv) Al2 (SO4)3(aq)
- Studying the dependence of potential difference (V) across a resistor
the current (I)
passing through it and determining its resistance. Also plotting a graph between V and
- Experimentally show that carbon dioxide is given out during
- Determination of the focal length of:
i) Concave mirror
ii) Convex lens by obtaining the image of a distant object.
- Tracing the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass
angles of incidence. Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of
emergence, and interpret the result.
- Studying (a) binary fission in Amoeba, and (b) budding in yeast and
with the help of
- Tracing the path of the rays of light through a glass prism.